Knee Pain- Common Knee Problems

Knee Pain

Common Knee Problems

A common knee problem could be patellar chondromalacia. This chronic pain is due to softening of the cartilage beneath the knee cap. Pain is from mild to complete erosion of the cartilage in the back of the knee cap. It causes pain in the front of the knee. It occurs more in young people. It becomes worse from climbing up and down stairs. Treatment for patellar chondromalacia usually includes therapy and NSAIDS. Another common knee problem could be Patellar Bursitis.knee This is characterized by pain and inflammation over the front of the kneecap. This occurs when the bursa becomes inflamed and fills with fluid at the top of the knee. It causes pain, swelling, tenderness, and a lump in the area on top of the kneecap. Lateral Collateral Ligament Rupture usually occurs as a result of sports activities. Medial Collateral Ligament Rupture is an injury to the ligament on the inner part of the knee. It is the most commonly injured knee ligament. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear involves valgus stress to the knee. Usually the patient will have swelling and hematoma. It can be diagnosed by MRI or a positive Lachman’s test. Patellar Tendonitis is characterized by inflammation and pain located inferior to the knee cap area. The meniscus is a cusion that protects the cartilage of the knee. A meniscal injury will cause pain of the medial or lateral side of the knee. The outer 30% of the meniscus has blood supply. Meniscal tears can be diagnosed by MRI or a positive McMurrays test. kneeePatient with meniscal tears typically have a history of locking, swelling, and instability of the knee. Arthritis of the Knee Joint is characterized by progressive wearing away of the cartilage of the joint. The knee is a common part of the body that is most affected by arthritis. Knee arthritis causes decreased joint space. A Baker’s Cyst causes swelling in the back of the knee filled with synovial fluid. The cyst is between the semimembranous and medial gastrochnemius muscles. Gout is a type of arthritis or joint inflammation caused by an excessive level of uric acid in the blood. It can affect any joint especially the big toe. The gout crystals look like needles and have a negative birefringence.

Cubital Fossa

Cubital Fossa

Cubital FossaThis is about understanding the arrangement of the structures in the anterior elbow. This is an anatomy video, but this can also help surgeons in knowing how to approach the insertion of the distal biceps for repair or how to approach the proximal radius fracture anteriorly. If you look at the bony structures of the anterior elbow, you need to find out where the common flexor tendon origin is, where the brachialis muscle is inserted, and where the biceps is, supinator and the pronator teres located. These structures are definitely part of the anterior elbow. The cubital fossa is a triangular depression located in front of the anterior elbow. The medial border is formed by the pronator teres, which arises from the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The lateral border of the cubital fossa is formed by the brachioradialis muscle which arises from the lateral supracondylar ridge of the humerus. The meeting of these two muscles forms the apex of the cubital fossa. The brachioradialis muscle overlaps the pronator teres, so the lateral border overlaps the medial border. The base of the cubital fossa is superior and is represented by a horizontal line connecting the two epicondyles of the humerus, the lateral and medial epicondyles.

Structures Located In and Around The Cubital Fossa

The base of the cubital fossa is seen as an imaginary line drawn between the medial epicondyle and the lateral epicondyle of the distal humerus. The pronator teres is the medial border, and the brachioradialis muscle forms the lateral border. The contents of the cubital fossa from medial to lateral are median nerve, brachial artery, biceps tendon, and radial nerve. The floor of the cubital fossa is made up of the lower part of the brachialis muscle medially and the supinator muscle laterally. The roof of the cubital fossa is made up of skin, fascia, and the bicipital aponeurosis. CFS

The median nerve disappears by entering the forearm between the two heads of the pronator teres muscle. The brachial artery bifurcates into the ulnar artery and the radial artery. The brachial artery is over the brachialis muscle. The ulnar artery leaves the fossa by going under the deep head of the pronator teres muscle. The deep head of the pronator teres muscle separates the median nerve, which goes between two heads of the pronator teres muscle from the ulnar artery, which goes deep to the deep head of the pronator teres muscle. Another branch that is in the cubital fossa is the radial artery. The radial artery descends laterally and is overlapped by the brachioradialis muscle. The biceps tendon is lateral to the brachial artery within the cubital fossa. The biceps tendon has one main insertion laterally to the radial tuberosity and another insertion going medially to the bicipital aponeurosis. The bicipital aponeurosis covers and protects the vital structures medially to the biceps tendon (brachial artery and median nerve). The biceps tendon passes backwards (twisted) towards its insertion into the radial tuberosity. Lateral to the biceps tendon is the radial nerve and its major branch, the posterior interosseous nerve. Other important nerves in the vicinity of the cubital fossa include the superficial radial nerve which is below the brachioradialis and the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm which is a branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and lies below the biceps proximally and then finally lies laterally.


Distal Biceps Tendon Repair & LAC Nerve Vulnerability

The biceps muscle is attached to the bone at the elbow. The biceps muscle is inserted into the radial biceps rupturetuberosity by the distal biceps tendon. The biceps muscle is responsible for some elbow flexion and is the primary supinator of the forearm. Supination is the function used when turning a key or a door knob. The biceps muscle is responsible for over 50% of forearm supination. Rupture of the distal biceps tendon involves flexion of the elbow against resistance with eccentric loading and sudden tearing of the tendon. The muscle may retract into the upper arm causing a bump or “Popeye” sign. If the ruptured tendon is not repaired, the patient will lose the ability to supinate the forearm adequately. Injury to the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve may occur when treating a distal biceps tendon rupture. The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve lies between the brachialis and biceps muscles. The nerve can become injured from aggressive retraction. The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve originates cutaneous nerve originates from the musculocutaneous nerve. Injury to the nerve results in loss of sensation along the radial aspect of the forearm.

Treatment of a distal biceps tendon injury usually requires surgery due to the important supination function of the biceps muscle. Surgery may be done in the form of a single anterior incision or a two incision technique. Both of these techniques have their advantages and disadvantages. The anterior approach is easier with minimal risk of synostosis; however, there is a risk of injury to the posterior interosseous nerve. The two incision approach has less risk of injury to the posterior interosseous nerve, however there is a risk of synostosis. The lateral antebrachial nerve is the nerve most commonly injured during repair of a distal biceps tendon rupture regardless of the technique that is used. When treating the distal biceps tendon rupture, identify and protect the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Diffuse pain and paresthesia in the forearm after distal biceps tendon repair should be investigated for lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury. In this situation, the nerve may need to be explored.

injury to LCN


Lumbrical Plus Finger

What is Lumbrical Plus Finger?

Lumbrical plus finger is a paradoxical extension of the IP joint when attempting finger flexion. It is usually caused by disruption of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon distal to the lumbrical origin. The lumbrical muscles in the palm of the hand arise from the tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus and are inserted into the dorsal extensor expansions on the backs of the proximal phalanges of the fingers. The flexor digitorum profundus tendon to the index finger is most commonly separate from the conjoined tendons to the long, ring, and little fingers. The flexor digitorum prfundus for the long, ring, and 5th finger share a common muscle belly. The patient cannot independently flex two digits without flexing the third digit.


The function of the four lumbricals (with help from interosseous muscles) is to flex the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints. Contraction of the lumbricals relaxes the flexor pull on the DIP. In a normal finger, the lumbrical muscle relaxes to allow flexion of the interphalangeal joint. The lumbricals coordinate flexor and extensor systems. Extension of the IP joint paradoxically occurs through the lateral bands. The middle finger is most commonly involved.

Why does paradoxical extension of the finger occur?

flexionThe transected flexor digitorum profundus tendon retracts with active flexion. The lumbricals will pull on the lateral bands, creating PIP extension. Lumbrical plus finger can be caused by an FDP disrupted tendon distal to the origin of the lumbrical muscle, a distal amputation of the finger, a flexor tendon graft lax and long, and by avulsions of the FDP tendon. When testing for Lumbrical plus finger, when the patient is relaxed, the affected finger can be flexed passively. With the patient gripping all of the fingers, the affected finger extends actively at the IP joints. This is known as paradoxical extension. Treatment will be in the form of a lumbrical release from the flexor digitorum profundus tendon.